Introducing Biometric Technology

Face Identification Technology

Facial biometrics is one of the fastest growing areas of biometrics. With growing technologies facial recognition can convert a photograph or a video image into a code that describes a face’s physical characterizes. This can be used to identify the common person from a distance, without intruding into their personal space.
Computer software for facial identification reads the peaks and valleys of an individual’s facial features; these peaks and valleys are known as nodal points. There are 80 nodal points in a human face, but the software needs only 15-20 to make an identification. Specialists concentrate on the golden triangle region between the temples and the lips. This area of the face remains the same even if hair and a beard is grown, weight is gained, aging occurs, or glasses are put on.

Hand Geometry Identification Technology

Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands. Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file.
Viable hand geometry devices have been manufactured since the early 1980s, making hand geometry the first biometric to find widespread computerized use. It remains popular; common applications include access control and time-and-attendance operations.
Since hand geometry is not thought to be as unique as fingerprints or irises, fingerprinting and iris recognition remain the preferred technology for high-security applications. Hand geometry is very reliable when combined with other forms of identification, such as identification cards or personal identification numbers. In large populations, hand geometry is not suitable for so-called one-to-many applications, in which a user is identified from his biometric without any other identification.

DNA Identification Technology

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Biometrics could be the most exact form of identifying any given individual (Baird, S., 2002). Every human being has its own individual map for every cell made, and this map, or ‘blueprint’ as it more often is called, can be found in every body cell. Because DNA is the structure that defines who we are physically and intellectually, unless an individual is an identical twin, it is not likely that any other person will have the same exact set of genes (Philipkoski, K., 2004).
DNA can be collected from any number of sources: blood, hair, finger nails, mouth swabs, blood stains, saliva, straws, and any number of other sources that has been attached to the body at some time. DNA matching has become a popular use in criminal trials, especially in proving rape cases (Landers, E., 1992). The main problems surrounding DNA biometrics is that it is not a quick process to identify someone by their DNA. The process is also a very costly one (Baird, S., 2002).
DNA Biometrics is not a fool proof method of identification. If forensic scientists to not conduct a DNA test properly, a person’s identification code can be skewed. Another problem is matching prior DNA samples to new samples; this is a bigger problem in DNA fingerprinting. The information looks like a bar code, and if not closely inspected an incorrect match could be made (SAIC, 2004).

Human Gait Identification Technology

Gait biometrics identifies a person by the way the walk, run, or any other type of motion of the legs. A person’s gait is the way in which they move on their feet. Gait biometrics can be used to identify everything from the length and thickness of an individuals legs to the stride of their step. Unlike some other, more researched and identifiable methods of biometrics, gait biometric technology faces the difficulty of identifying not only a particular body part but a motion (World Information, 2003).
At Georgia Tech University, professors and students are developing a system that will be able to recognize a persons gait by radar signals. This Doppler effect is 80- 95 percent effective in identifying an individual. Research Engineer Bill Marshall explains that they can decode radio signals reflecting of a person’s walking stride, as they walk toward the signal. This signal pattern is converted to an individuals audio signature, which can be catalogued for later use. Marshall is sure to include that audio signals, decoded from an individual’s gait, are not unique to a particular person. Any given number of people may have the same audio signature, but unlike the unique DNA or finger prints, gait biometrics can catalog an individual without them knowing they were ever being observed.
Gait biometrics would be particularly beneficial in identifying criminal suspects. Police could scan a large crowd for a suspect without them knowing they were on to them. Gait biometrics can also be used to identify shoplifters-particularly ‘pregnant’ women. Women pretending to be pregnant will walk differently then women who are actually pregnant. This would be a large advance in technology if introduced to common retail stores.
Some sources recognize what gait biometrics says it can do, but doubts it’s ability to perform. A gait system can easily be deceived because walking patterns can be sometimes be altered. Skeptics also doubt gait biometrics ability to perform in real life scenarios, such as airports and large crowds. Regardless of what critics say, gait biometrics will have to prove it’s capabilities in action.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Sometimes these kind of security make problems. like this week which I burned my finger and I couldn't sign in to my laptop with using my finger-print :D:D